Need-based Justice in Social Exchange Networks
We examine experimentally whether heterogeneous needs affect the distribution of outcomes in small and negatively connected exchange networks. We operationalize an individual need as a threshold of points an actor has to obtain in a negotiation in order to earn additional income in a subsequent real effort task. In contrast to previous exchange network experiments, an offer is not restricted to the negotiating dyad but can allocate the endowment to all network members. Contrary to the standard rational choice assumption, our results show that the majority of accepted offers fulfill the needs of all actors in the network. Moreover, the network structure, the ranking of needs, as well as the interaction of these factors, significantly affect the distribution of resources in the network.
Strongmen or Technocrats? A Conjoint Experiment Testing Leadership Preferences in Afghanistan
New democracies beset by political violence often opt for political settlements that draw informal power brokers and former combatants into formal leadership positions. However, there is little empirical evidence about how these political settlements are viewed by the public, and to what extent they may impact the political legitimacy of the state. Drawing from an original dataset from Afghanistan, this study uses conjoint analysis to estimate leadership preferences in three provinces. The findings suggest that, contrary to prevailing beliefs about the appeal of traditional leaders or military strongmen, Afghans strongly prefer leaders who are young and highly educated.